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How A Dry Electrostatic Precipitator Works

How A Dry Electrostatic Precipitator Works

In the simplest terms, a dry electrostatic precipitator ( ESP ) is a large box. Particulate control begins when the dust laden gases are drawn into one side of the box. Inside, high voltage electrodes impart a negative charge to the particles entrained in the gas. These negatively charged particles are then attracted to a grounded collecting surface which is positively charged. The gas then leaves the box up to 99.9% cleaner than when it entered.

The particulate control process continues inside the box, as the particles from the continuous flow build up on the collecting plates. At periodic intervals, the plates are rapped causing the particles to fall into hoppers. The particles collected during the particulate control process are then removed from the hoppers by a rotary screw conveyor.

The negatively charged rigid type discharge electrodes are accurately centered between the collecting surfaces and supported from high voltage insulators located in insulator compartments.

One of the most important considerations in design and operation of the dry electrostatic precipitator ( ESP ) is the removal of the collected material from the collecting surfaces without re-entraining it in the gas stream, this ensures compliance with MACT. On PPC dry electrostatic precipitator devices ( ESP ), material removal from the plates is accomplished by electromagnetic rappers installed on the roof section. These rappers deliver hammer blows of preset intensity at preset intervals to the plate headers. A vertical shock wave is created in each plate causing the collected material to shear off and fall into the hopper. The rapping intensity and interval is dictated by the characteristics of the deposited material. These adjustments are made to the rapper system to suit the requirements of each installation and are a part of the dry electrostatic precipitator ( ESP ) start up service provided by PPC.

As opposed to dry electrostatic precipitator ( ESP ) hoppers, the PPC dry precipitator hoppers have integral, support members which simplifies support steel fabrication and structural steel erection. Additionally this allows shop installation of insulation and heaters at substantial savings. PPC dry electrostatic precipitator hopper openings are a minimum of 18" wide to allow free flow of ash and eliminate bridging. Hopper depth is kept to a minimum to reduce cooling of ash and subsequent caking.

Maximum effectiveness of the dry electrostatic precipitator particulate control system occurs when the voltage supply output reaches the sparking threshold. Variation in gas volume, dust loading and other factors, however affect the sparking threshold level. Employing an advanced electrical control system, an automatic control circuit regulates each high voltage power supply output for maximum dry electrostatic precipitator ( ESP ) efficiency regardless of process variation. Sparking causes the power supply to "notch down" slightly with the automatic controls bringing it right back up to sparking potential. Modern digital electronic controls automate this process and assure the ESP particulate control device operates a peak performance levels at all times, ensuring compliance with MACT guidelines as set forth by the EPA.